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breathing disorders – stopping breathing during sleep (sleep apnoea); breathing
ineffectively during sleep (sleep hypopnoea); sleep disturbed breathing
difficulty in the phases of sleep and this can be initial (problems with falling
asleep); middle (wakening up during sleep); or early morning wakening
There are two main categories of hypersomnia: primary hypersomnia (sometimes
called idiopathic hypersomnia) and recurrent hypersomnia (sometimes called
recurrent primary hypersomnia). Both are characterized by the same signs and
symptoms and differ only in the frequency and regularity with which the symptoms
hypersomnia is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness over a long period
of time. The symptoms are present all, or nearly all, of the time. Recurring
hypersomnia involves periods of excessive daytime sleepiness that can last from
one to many days, and recur over the course of a year or more. The primary
difference between this and primary hypersomnia is that persons experiencing
recurring hypersomnia will have prolonged periods where they do not exhibit any
signs of hypersomnia, whereas persons experiencing primary hypersomnia are
affected by it nearly all the time. One of the best documented forms of
recurrent hypersomnia is Kleine-Levin syndrome, although there are other forms
daytime sleepiness - There are many different causes for daytime sleepiness that
are not considered hypersomnia, and there are many diseases and disorders in
which excessive daytime sleepiness is a primary or secondary symptom. Feelings
of daytime sleepiness are often associated with the use of common substances
such as caffeine, alcohol, and many medications. Other common factors that can
lead to excessive daytime sleepiness that is not considered hypersomnia include
shift work and insomnia. Shift work can disrupt the body's natural sleep
rhythms. Insomnia can cause excessive daytime sleepiness because of lack of
nighttime sleep, and is a separate disorder.
rhythm sleep disorders – These are a family of
sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep. People with circadian rhythm
sleep disorders are unable to sleep and wake at the times required for normal
work, school, and social needs. They are generally able to get enough sleep if
allowed to sleep and wake at the times dictated by their body clocks. Unless
they have another sleep disorder, their sleep is of normal quality. The
circadian rhythm sleep disorders are:
Jet lag, which affects people who travel across several time zones.
Shift work: People who work at night often have trouble sleeping during
Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), which causes difficulty falling
asleep at night and waking up in the morning.
Advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS), which causes difficulty staying
awake in the evening and staying asleep in the morning.
Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome, which causes patients to stay up later
and later each night, then wake up later each morning.
sleep-wake pattern, which presents as sleeping at very irregular times, and
usually more than once per day (waking frequently during the night and
taking naps during the day).
Parasomnias - A
parasomnia is any
sleep disorder such as
rhythmic movement disorder,
REM behaviour disorder,
restless leg syndrome, and
somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during
sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. Parasomnias are
often associated with
depression, and biological factors may also be involved. Many parasomnias
are more common in children than in adults.
dyssomnias, parasomnias do not involve abnormalities of the mechanisms
generating sleep-wake states, nor of the timing of sleep and wakefulness.
Rather, parasomnias represent the activation of physiological systems at
inappropriate times during the sleep-wake cycle. In particular, these disorders
involve activation of the autonomic nervous system, motor system, or cognitive
processes during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.
parasomnias, such as sleepwalking, are often used as themes in
comedy, but can actually have serious consequences. For example, a person
with REM behavior disorder, while trying to swing a
tennis racket in a dream, can potentially injure their bedmate. People with
night terrors can prevent others from sleeping well, as well as waking
themselves up. For these reasons, parasomniacs sometimes need medical treatment.